Page 182 - TSMC 2020 Annual Report
P. 182

b. Cash flow hedge
The Company designates certain hedging instruments, such as forward exchange contracts, to partially hedge its foreign exchange rate risks associated with certain highly probable forecast transactions (capital expenditures). The effective portion of changes in the fair value of hedging instruments is recognized in other comprehensive income. When the forecast transactions actually take place, the associated gains or losses that were recognized in other comprehensive income are removed from equity and included in the initial cost of the hedged items. The gains or losses from hedging instruments relating to the ineffective portion are recognized immediately in profit or loss.
The Company prospectively discontinues hedge accounting only when the hedging relationship ceases to meet the qualifying criteria; for instance, when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventories are recorded at standard cost and adjusted to approximate weighted-average cost at the end of the reporting period. Net realizable value represents the estimated selling price of inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.
Investments Accounted for Using Equity Method
Investments accounted for using the equity method are investments in associates.
An associate is an entity over which the Company has significant influence and that is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies.
The operating results and assets and liabilities of associates are incorporated in these consolidated financial statements using the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, an investment in an associate is initially recognized in the consolidated statements of financial position at cost and adjusted thereafter to recognize the Company’s share of profit or loss and other comprehensive income of the associate as well as the distribution received. The Company also recognizes its share in the changes in the equities of associates.
Any excess of the cost of acquisition over the Company’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable
assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of an associate recognized at the date of acquisition is recognized as goodwill, which is included within the carrying amount of the investment. Any excess of the Company’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of acquisition, after reassessment, is recognized immediately in profit or loss.
When necessary, the entire carrying amount of the investment (including goodwill) is tested for impairment as a single asset by comparing its recoverable amount (higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell) with its carrying amount. Any impairment loss recognized forms part of the carrying amount of the investment. Any reversal of that impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the recoverable amount of the investment subsequently increases.
When the Company subscribes to additional shares in an associate at a percentage different from its existing ownership percentage, the resulting carrying amount of the investment differs from the amount of the Company’s proportionate interest in the net assets of the associate. The Company records such a difference as an adjustment to investments with the corresponding amount charged or credited to capital surplus. If the Company’s ownership interest is reduced due to the additional subscription to the shares of associate by other investors, the proportionate amount of the gains or losses previously recognized in other comprehensive income in relation to that associate shall be reclassified to profit or loss on the same basis as would be required if the associate had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities.
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